During the Late Victorian or Aesthetic period (1885-1900), jewelers used diamonds and feminine, bright gemstones such as sapphire, peridot, and spinel. Star and crescent designs as well as elaborate hat pins were also popular. Some scholars believe the aesthetic era began sooner, in 1875, and ended as early as 1890.
Coral is an organic gemstone which is cut from a mass of skeletons, secreted by polyps as a calcareous habitat. These corals, usually, grow at a depth of no more than about 50 feet (15 to 20 meters) in tropical to sub-tropical waters in a belt between 30 degrees above and below the equator. It comes in a wide variety of colors which are caused by both the water temperature, the food and the level of pollution. The highest valued corals are those with a dark red (ox blood) or pinkish (peau d'ange) color. Corals are usually cut as beads or en cabochon. The larger the stones and the more even the color distribution, the higher the price will be. Cameos and sculptures were also carved from this gem. There is an emphases on were as most coral reefs are now, rightfully, protected globally due to their invaluable ecological role. Much like the trade in ivory, the trade in old coral is still acceptable and many coral artifacts are of historic value.
Rose Cut Diamond
The rose cut features a flat bottom with a dome-shaped crown, rising to a single apex. With anywhere from 3 to 24 facets, a rose cut diamond resembles the shape of a rose bud. The rose cut dates to the 1500s and remained common during the Georgian and Victorian eras.
Because of the softness of pure (24k), it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties. Alloys with lower carat rating, typically 22k, 18k, 14k or 9k, contain higher percentages of copper or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy. Copper is the most commonly used base metal, yielding a redder color.