The jewelry industry was significantly impacted by the onset of World War II in the 1940s. Precious metals, particularly platinum, became scarce and in some cases were even banned from being sold. Palladium was used as a substitute for platinum in the war effort. In order to make the most of the limited supply of gold, a low karat gold alloy with a higher percentage of copper was used. This resulted in gold with a subtle, reddish hue, but through the use of different alloys, gold was able to appear in a range of colors within a single piece. Gold was also manipulated in various ways, such as being woven, braided, and coiled. Techniques like resilla, cannetille, and lacy filigree patterns reappeared in jewelry. Different textures were also used within a single design, with matte finishes being placed next to bright finishes to accentuate the design. Gold became the primary metal used in jewelry during the 1940s and 1950s.
Citrine is a variety of quartz that is yellow to golden in color and is colored by trace elements of iron. It is named after the French word "citron," which means "lemon." The color of citrine closely resembles the color of yellow topaz, which is more expensive, and as a result, citrine is sometimes marketed under various misnomers such as "Madeira topaz," "Bahia topaz," and "topaz quartz."
Today, citrine is often actually amethyst that has been heated to a temperature of approximately 900 degrees Fahrenheit (around 450 to 480 degrees Celsius). This process creates a stable golden to yellow color that can be restored to its original color upon irradiation.
Citrine is the second most coveted variety of quartz after amethyst. It is prized for its beautiful yellow to golden color and is often used in a variety of different types of jewelry, including rings, earrings, pendants, and bracelets. It is also believed to have various healing properties and is sometimes used in traditional medicine. It is thought to have calming and balancing effects, and is sometimes used in meditation practices.
18k gold is a type of gold alloy that is commonly used in jewelry making. It is made up of 75% gold and 25% other metals, such as copper, silver, or palladium. The addition of other metals helps to increase the durability and strength of the gold, making it more suitable for use in jewelry. 18k gold is softer and more prone to scratching than higher karat golds, such as 22k or 24k, but it is still a popular choice for jewelry because of its warm, yellow color and good resistance to tarnishing. It is also less expensive than higher karat golds due to the smaller amount of gold used in the alloy. 18k gold is a popular choice for engagement rings, wedding bands, and other fine jewelry items.